Urban development areas, having greater impervious surfaces such as roads, parking spaces and building roofs, have an adverse impact on the urban environment, as they generate more runoff. This situation could even worsen during extreme rainfall events as it accumulates stormwater runoff more rapidly and causes the occurrence of flash floods. In this study, eight historical extreme rainfall events with rainfall depths between 40 and 70 mm were chosen to investigate the performance of permeable pavement as an urban runoff mitigation measure approach in stormwater management. A commercial center was selected as a case study, with a total catchment area of 3,425 m2 and consisting of double-row roadside car parking spaces with tarred surfaces covering 61% of the total catchment area. The front road of the shophouses was assumed to be replaced with a modular-based precast stormwater detention system, and a drainage model was developed to mimic the system. Simulations of the stormwater flowing through the detention system were performed with Storm Water Management Model version 5.0, and it was found that the detention system could endure seven out of the eight storms. The only storm that overwhelmed the system demonstrated an intense rainfall pattern that peaked in the first hour.


Drainage, Hydrograph, Urban runoff, Permeable road, Postdevelopment, Predevelopment, Sustainable development

Full Text:



DEPARTMENT OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE (DID) OF MALAYSIA (2012). Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia, Ministry of Environment and Water, Kuala Lumpur.

GUAN X., Wang J., Xiao F. (2021). Sponge City Strategy and Application of Pavement Materials in Sponge City, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol 303, 127022.

HAMOUZ V., MUTHANNA T.M. (2019). Hydrological Modelling of Green and Grey Roofs in Cold Climate with the SWMM Model, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 249, 109350.

KIA A., DELENS J.M., WONG H.S., CHEESEMAN C.R. (2021). Structural and Hydrological Design of Permeable Concrete Pavements, Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol. 15, e00564.

LI H., HARVEY J.T., HOLLAND T.J., KAYHANIAN M. (2013). The Use of Reflective and Permeable Pavements as a Potential Practice for Heat Island Mitigation and Stormwater Management, Environmental Research Letters, Vol 8, No 1, 015023.

LISENBEE W.A., HATHAWAY J.M., WINSTON R.J. (2022). Modelling Bioretention Hydrology: Quantifying the Performance of DRAINMOD-Urban and the SWMM LID Module, Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 612, 128179.

MAH D.Y.S., BUSTAMI R.A., PUTUHENA F.J., AL DIANTY M. (2020). Testing the Concept of Mitigating Overflowing Urban Drain with Permeable Road, International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 9, No 5, 7878-7882.

MAH D.Y.S., NGU J.O.K., TAIB S.N.L., LIM S.F., PUTUHENA F.J. (2022). Testing the Concept of Mitigating Urban Flooding with Permeable Road: Case Study of Tong Wei Tah Street, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, Trends in Sciences, Vol. 19, No 15, 5592.

NOTARO V., LIUZZO L., FRENI G., LA LOGGIA G. (2015). Uncertainty Analysis in the Evaluation of Extreme Rainfall Trends and its Implications on Urban Drainage System Design, Water, Vol. 7, No 12, 6931-6945.

PEREIRA SOUZA F., LEITE COSTA M.E., KOIDE S. (2019). Hydrological Modelling and Evaluation of Detention Ponds to Improve Urban Drainage System and Water Quality, Water, Vol. 11, No 8, 1547.

PUBLIC UTILITIES BOARD (PUB) OF SINGAPORE (2010). Technical Guide for On-Site Detention Tank Systems, National Water Agency, Singapore.

RATHNAYKE U., SRISHANTHA U. (2017). Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) – What It Is and Where Do We Stand Today?, Engineering and Applied Science Research, Vol. 44, Issue 4, pp. 235-241.

ZAKIZADEH F., MOGHADDAM NIA A., SALAJEGHEH A., SAÑUDO-FONTANEDA L.A., ALAMDARI N. (2022). Efficient Urban Runoff Quantity and Quality Modelling Using SWMM Model and Field Data in an Urban Watershed of Tehran Metropolis, Sustainability, Vol. 14, No 3, P. 1086.

ZIANG Z., XIE J., GU S., GAO L., LIU, Y. (2019). Study on Hydrological Characteristics of Large Permeable Parking lot in Sponge City, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 295, No 3, 032019


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.