POLYMERIC HUMIC MATERIAL REMOVAL BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION STOICHIOMETRIC DOSAGE ALUMINUM SULPHATE/HUMIC ACID IN SALINE AQUEOUS MEDIA
The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the removal of polymeric humic matter during coagulation-flocculation and to highlight stoichiometric relationships between the coagulant dosage and the organic substance content. It is therefore a question of assessing the influence of reaction parameters such as the dose of aluminum sulfate, the concentration of humic acid, the pH and the saline composition of the water during the coagulation-flocculation treatment.
To establish correlations between the initial organic compound content and the coagulant dosage, humic acid was dissolved at levels of 1 to 20 mg/l in distilled water and mineralized groundwater from the Biskra area at different pH values. Then, solutions were coagulated by increasing doses of aluminum sulfate. The organic compound final concentrations are deduced from the calibration curves, which were previously established for the tested compound in the various dilution media.
The results obtained indicate that the process efficiency as well as the coagulant dosage depend on the pH, the organic compound initial concentration and the characteristics of the dilution medium. The findings also showed that increasing water salinity had a promoting effect on humic acid removal. The predominant mechanisms of the tested organic acid removal process were complexation phenomena or ligand exchange with soluble or insoluble aluminum species. Demonstration of the stoichiometry of the reactions showed that the relationships linking the dosage of the coagulant to the initial concentration of humic acid essentially depended on the pH and the salinity of the different waters tested.
ACHOUR S. (2001). Impact of chlorination, flocculation and adsorption on the evolution of organic and mineral compounds in natural waters. Doctoral Thesis in Hydraulic Sciences, University of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. (In French).
ACHOUR S., GUERGAZI S. and HARRAT N. (2009). Organic pollution of dam waters in eastern Algeria and effect of chlorination. "The state of water resources in the Maghreb in 2009", Part IV, Chapter 14, Ed. UNESCO and GEB-Environment, Rabat, Morocco. (In French)
ACHOUR S., GUESBAYA N. (2005). Coagulation-flocculation by aluminum sulphate of organic phenolic compounds and humic substances, Larhyss Journal, No 4, pp.153-168. (In French).
ACHOUR S., YOUCEF L., GUERGAZI S. (2008). Physico-chemical quality of groundwater and surface waters of the northern eastern Sahara of Algeria, L’Eau, l’Industrie, les Nuisances, No 311, pp.79-84. (In French)
AFOUFOU F., GUESBAYA N., ACHOUR S., (2007). Effect of the mineralization of natural waters on the elimination of aromatic organic compounds by coagulation – flocculation, Courrier du Savoir Scientifique et Technique,University of Biskra, No 8, pp.75-81. (In French).
APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st Edition, American Public Health Association Edition/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.
BACHA N., ACHOUR S. (2015). Influence of reaction parameters on the stoichiometry of aluminum sulphate/natural organic matter in distilled water, Larhyss Journal, No 21, pp. 141-148. (In French)
BACHA N., ACHOUR S. (2017). Trials of pyromellitic acid coagulation in media with various degree of mineralization, Journal of Water and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 1, special number ICWR, pp. 235-242. (In French).
BENSCHOTEN J.E., EDZWALD, J.K. (1990). Chemical aspects of coagulation using aluminum salts—I. Hydrolytic reactions of alum and polyaluminum chloride, Water Research, Vol. 24, No 12, pp.1519-1526.
BERNHARDT H., LÜSSE B., HOYER O. (1986). the addition of calcium to reduce the impairment of flocculation by algogenic organic matter, Zeitschrift fur Wasser und Abwasser Forschung, Journal for Water and Wastewater Research, Vol. 19, No 1, pp. 219-228.
BERRAK A. (1997). Influence of some contaminants on the kinetic behavior of new aluminum-based coagulants, phD Department of Chemistry, University of Sherbrook, Quebec.
BLACK A.P., WILLEMS D.G. (1961). Electrophoretic studies of coagulation for removal of organic color, Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 53, No 4, pp.438-443.
BOGGS J.R.S., LIVERMORE D.G., SEITZ M.G. (1985). Humic macromolecules in natural waters, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C, Vol. 25, No 4, pp.599-657.
CHOW W.M. (1992). behaviour of aluminum and its ecological significance in natural waters, Water Supply, Vol. 10, No 4, pp.1-10
DENTEL S.K. (1991). Coagulant control in water treatment, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, Vol. 21, No 1, pp. 41-135.
DRISCOLL C.T., SCHECHER W.D. (1990). The chemistry of aluminum in the environment. Environmental Geochemistry Health, Vol.12, Issue 1-2, pp.28–49.
EDZWALD J.K. & TOBIASON J.E. (1999). Enhanced coagulation: US requirements and a broader view, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 40, Issue 9, pp.63-70.
EDZWALD, J. K., VAN BENSCHOTEN, J. B. (1990). Aluminum coagulation of natural organic matter. In Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment; Hahn H., Klute R., Eds.Springer, New York.
GARBIN J.R., MILORI D.M.B., SIMOES M.L., DA SILVA W.T.L., NETO L.M. (2007). Influence of humic substances on the photolysis of aqueous pesticide residues, Chemosphere, Vol. 66, Issue 9, pp. 1692-1698.
HARRAT N., ACHOUR S. (2016). Behavior of humic substances from Zit El Amba dam during coagulation-flocculation in the presence of aluminum sulphate and activated carbon, Larhyss Journal, No 26, pp. 149-165. (In French)
HEALTH CANADA (2019). Guidance on Natural Organic Matter in Drinking Water- Document for Public Consultation, Government of Canada.
HECINI L., ACHOUR S. (2014). Coagulation-flocculation by aluminum sulfate of organic phenolic compounds and effect of calcium and magnesium salts, Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, Vol. 27, No 3, pp. 189-280. (In French).
JECKEL M.R. (1986). Interactions of humic acids and aluminum salts in flocculation process, Water Research, No 20, pp.1535-1542.
JEONG S., SATHASIVAN A., KASTL G., SHIM W.G., VIGNESWARAN S. (2014). Experimental investigation and modeling of dissolved organic carbon removal by coagulation from seawater, Chemosphere, Vol. 95, pp.310-316.
JIANG J.Q. & WANG H.Y. (2009). Comparative Coagulant Demand of Polyferric Chloride and Ferric Chloride for the Removal of Humic Acid, Separation Science and Technology, Vol. 44, No 2, pp.386-397.
KONG Y., MA Y., DING L., MA J., ZHANG H., CHEN Z., JIMIN SHEN. (2021). Coagulation behaviors of aluminum salts towards humic acid: Detailed analysis of aluminum speciation and transformation, Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 259, pp.118-137.
LAGLERA L.M., BATTAGLIA G., VAN DEN BERG C.M.G. (2011). Effect of humic substances on the iron speciation in natural waters by CLE/CSV, Marine Chemistry, No 127, pp.134-143.
LEFEBVRE E., LEGUBE B. (1993). Coagulation-flocculation by ferric chloride of some organic acids and phenols in aqueous solution, Water Research, Vol.27, No 3, pp.433-447. (In French)
LEFEBVRE E., LEGUBE B. (1990). Iron (III) coagulation of humic substances extracted from surface waters: effect of pH and humic substances concentration, Water Research, Vol.24, No 5, pp.591-606. (In French).
LIANG Z., WANG Y., ZHOU Y., LIU H., WU Z. (2010). Stoichiometric relationship in the coagulation of melanoidins-dominated molasses wastewater, Desalination, Vol. 250, No1, pp. 42-48.
MAHLER C.M., DAL SANTO SVIERZOSKI N., BERNARDINO C.A.R. (2021). Chemical Characteristics of Humic Substances in Nature, Chap.8, In: Humic substances, Ed. A. Maken, IntechOpen Publications, Rijeka.
NARKIS N., REBHUN M. (1997). Flocculation in presence of organic macromolecules of natural water and secondary effluents, Water Science Technology, Vol. 36, No 4, pp.85–91.
QIN J.J., MAUNG HTUN OO, KEKRE K.A., KNOPS F., MILLER P. (2006). Impact of coagulation pH on enhanced removal of natural organic matter in treatment of reservoir water, Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 3, pp.295-298.
RAJAEI F., TAHERI E., HADI S., FATEHIZADEH A., AMIN M. M., RAFEI N., AMINABHAVI T. M. (2021). Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by combined alternating current electrocoagulation and sulfate radical. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 277, May 15, pp. 116632.
REKHOW D.A., SINGER P.C., MALCOLM R.L. (1990). Chlorination of Humic Materials: Byproduct Formation and Chemical Interpretations, Environmental Science Technology, Vol. 24, No 11, pp.1655-1664.
REZEG A. & ACHOUR S. (2009). Removal mechanisms of acid aromatic organics by aluminum sulphate and mineralization effect, Courrier du Savoir, University of Biskra, No 9, pp.25-31. (In French)
RICHARDSON S.D., PLEWA M.J., WAGNER E.D., SCHOENY R., DEMARINI D.D. (2007). Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection byproducts in drinking water: A review and roadmap for research, Mutation Research, Vol. 636, Issue1-3, pp.178–242.
RODIER J., LEGUBE B., MERLET N. (2016). Water analysis: control and interpretation, 10th Ed. Dunod, Paris.
SEMMENS M.J. (1979). organics removal by coagulation: A review and Research needs, Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 71, N°10, pp. 588-603.
SINGER P.C. (1999). Humic substances as precursors for potentially harmful disinfection byproducts, Water Science Technology, Vol.40, N°9, pp.25-30.
STUMM W., O’MELIA C. R. (1968). Stoichiometry of coagulation. Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 60, No 5, pp. 514–539.
SUFFET I.H., MAC CARTHY P. (1988). Aquatic Humic Substances: Influence on Fate and Treatment of Pollutants, 1st Ed., Eds. American chemical Society, Washington DC.
TARDAT-HENRY M. (1989). Evolution of aluminum derivatives used as coagulating agents. Revue sciences et techniques de l’eau, Vol. 22, No 4, pp.297-303. (In French).
THURMAN E. M. (1985). Developments in biogeochemistry: Organic geochemistry of natural waters, Ed. Nijhoff M./Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
VAN BREEMEN A.N., NIEUWSTAD T.J., VAN DER MEENT-OLIEMAN (1979). The fate of fulvic acids during water treatment, Water Research, Vol. 13, No 8, pp.771-780.
WAIS-MOSSA M.T., MAZET M. (1991). Influence of mineral salts on the adsorption of humic acids on flocs of preformed iron hydroxides, Environmental Technology, Vol. 12, No 8, pp. 725-730. (In French).
WANG Y., GAO B. Y., XU X. M., XU W. Y. (2010). The effect of total hardness and ionic strength on the coagulation performance and kinetics of aluminum salts to remove humic acid, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 160, No1, pp. 150-156.
WU B., ZHANG Y., HONG H., HU M., LIU H., CHEN X. (2019). Hydrophobic organic compounds in drinking water reservoirs: Toxic effects of chlorination and protective effects of dietary antioxidants against disinfection byproducts. Water Research, Vol. 166, No 12, pp.115-141.
YAMAMORI H., MATSUDA H., SATO T., OSE Y., NAGASE H., KITO H. (1993). Evaluation of mutagenic activity of ozonated and ozonated‐chlorinated humic substances by sos chromotest, Journal of Environmental Science and Heath, Part A, Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology, Vol. 28, No 4, pp. 871-887.
ZHU G., XIONG N., WANG C., LI Z., HURSTHOUSE A. S. (2021). Application of a new HMW framework derived ANN model for optimization of aquatic dissolved organic matter removal by coagulation, Chemosphere, Vol. 262, Paper 127723.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.