POTENTIAL IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON GROUNDWATER IN THE TANGIER-TETOUAN-ALHOCEIMA REGION (MOROCCO)
The protection and preservation of natural environments, especially water resources, is a primary objective for national and global water services. The deterioration in groundwater quality is due to the effects of human activities: in particular industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. These anthropogenic activities release dangerous products and substances into the environment. The presence of these pollutants in groundwater poses a problem with the balance of water resources and poses a risk to human health, especially when it comes to the consumption of spring water in rural areas where the majority of the population obtains its water directly from the aquifer. The water table of the Tangiers-Tetouan-Alhoceima basin - the study area - is the most heavily used and its overexploitation is due to numerous individual motor pumps. Groundwater withdrawals are concentrated in rural areas and therefore cause groundwater levels to drop. This slick has also been strongly affected by climate change.
ABHL (2010). Report of Advantages of the zone for better water management, Hydraulic Basin Agency of Loukkos of Morocco, p 6.
ABHL (2014). Climatology department, internal report of Hydraulic Basin Agency of Loukkos of Morocco, Unpublished documents, p 15.
AMHARREF M. & BERNOUSSI A. (2006). Vulnerability index and risk assessment of groundwater pollution risks: Case of the Gharb plain (Morocco), International Colloque - Earth and water, Annaba, Vol. 22, pp. 64-67.
AMHARREF M., ASSINE S., BERNOUSSI A & HADDOUCHI B. (2007). Groundwater pollution vulnerability mapping: Application to the Gharb plain Morocco. Journal of Science, Vol.20, n° 2, pp. 185-199.
APDN (2007). Presentation of the intervention agency north perimeter, Agency for the Promotion and Development of the North, Morocco. Available online: file:///C:/Users/ZATEC/Zotero/storage/D72N7G6I/index.html (accessed on 14 Februry 2018).
DRPE (2014): Annual report on water resources activities, Directorate of Water Research and Planning of Morocco, edition 25, pp.5-10.
El GHARBAOUI, A. (1981). The Earth and Man in the Tingitan Peninsula: Study on Man and the Natural Environment in the Western Rif, Geology Geography Physics series, Vol.5, n° 15, 439p.
EL TALIBI H., EL MOUSSAOUI S., ZAGHLOUL M.N., ABOUMARIA K., WASSMER P. & MERCIER J.L. (2016): New sedimentary and geomorphic evidence of tsunami flooding related to an older events along the Tangier-Asilah coastal plain, Morocco, Geoenvironmental Disasters, Vol.3, n° 14, pp.10-21.
EL YAOUTI, F., EL MANDOUR, A., KHATTACH, D., BENAVENTE, J., KAUFMANN, O., (2009). Salinization processes in the unconfined aquifer of Bou-Areg (NE Morocco): A geostatistical, geochemical and tomographic study, Applied Geochemistry, Vol.24, Issue 1, pp.17-31.
ER-RAIOUI H., KHANNOUS ,S., OULD MOHAMED C., MHAMADA, M., BOUZID, S. (2012). The Mooccan Mediterranean Coastline: A Potential Threatened by the Urban Discharges. The Open Environmental Pollution & Toxicology Journal, Vol.3, n° 2, pp 23-36.
HAMZAOUI W., BOUGHERIRA N., REZEG A., DROUICHE A., CHAIB W., & DJABRI L, (2011). The contribution of PCR for characterization of groundwater in the region Ziban (South-eastern Algeria), Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, Vol.2, (S1) pp. 459-462.
KEDDAL H & YAO N'dri (2007). Impact of agricultural intensification on surface and groundwater quality, Men Land and water, Vol.40, n° 138, pp13-20.
LAGHZAL, A. SALMOUN F., BOUDINAR B., KHADDOR M., CHERROUD S., FIHRI M., MAMMAD C. (2016). Evaluation of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water springs by using a principal component analysis (PCA): A case study of Tingitane Peninsula (Morocco), Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, Vol.7, n° 2, pp. 456-462.
MATEE (2007). Report of Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development Monitoring progress in the field of water and promotion of water management policy, Ministry of Territorial Planning, Water and Environment of Morocco, pp.15-40.
MEHDIOUI, R. & KAHOUADJI, A. (2007). Ethnobotanical study of the riparian population of the forest of Amsittène: case of the Commune of Imi n'Tlit (Morocco), Bulletin of the Scientific Institute, life sciences section, n° 29, pp.11-20.
SAADI Z., MAASLOUHI A., ZERAOULI M & GAUDET J. P. (1999). Analysis and modelling of seasonal variations of nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the Mnasra groundwater table, Morocco, Planet Earth, Vol. 329, n° 8, pp.579-586.
SERM (2015): State of the Environment Report for Morocco, pp12-34. Available online: http://www.environnement.gov.ma/PDFs/Rapport-reem.pdf (accessed on 14 Februry 2018)
SOUDI M., AGHBANI M & AHMAD F.Id. (2002). Current situation of Nitric groundwater pollution in the Doukkala irrigated area. Men Land and water, Vol.32, n°r 123, pp.12-20.
UNEP (1999). State of the marine and coastal environment of the Mediterranean region, United Nations Environment Programme, Technical Report Serie, Vol. 101, pp.1-148.
WSC(1992). Integrated water development plan for the Loukkos basins, Northern Morocco, Water Superior Council, 5p.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.